Organ System Definition:
Organ system refers to an integrated combination of organs which performs several functions in the body of the organism. Organs are self-contained groups of tissues, such as the heart, that work together to perform a single function in most animals and plants. Humans and other mammals have a plethora of organ systems. The circulatory system, which includes the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries, is an example of an organ system. In case of Human Body,there are about eleven organ system all of which are very vital for survival and basic needs.
Examples of Organ System:
The Organ System includes the following,
- Integumentary System
- Skeletal System
- Muscular System
- Circulatory System
- Respiratory System
- Digestive System
- Urinary System
- Immune System
- Nervous System
- Endocrine System
- Reproductive System
The integumentary system is made up of external organs that protect the body from harm, such as the skin, fingernails, and hair. It has three layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis, which contains stored body fat. Keratin, a protein, is found in both nails and hair. The integumentary system of other animals may include feathers, scales, or hooves.
Aside from protecting internal organs from physical damage, the integumentary system also serves to protect against virus invasion, dehydration, and temperature changes, releases Vitamin D through sunlight exposure, and excretes waste through sweating.
The skeletal system, also known as the skeleton, is made up of all the bones in the human body. The skeleton is the body’s supporting structure. It derives from the Greek (skeletós), which means “dried up,” referring to the dry nature of bones. A human infant has 270 bones, some of which fuse to form the 206 bones of an adult human body. Cartilage is the precursor to bone in the development of an embryo, and it is found in some human body structures such as the nose, ears, and joints.
An endoskeleton is an internal support structure in an animal. Some animals, such as insects, have hard coverings called exoskeletons that are located on the outside of the body rather than inside.
The muscular system encompasses all of the muscles in the body, including cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles. Cardiac muscles are only found in the heart and contract in order to pump blood. In organs such as stomach, bladder and ingestion, a layer of smooth muscle is found which help in peristaltic movement which does not need the conscious effort of the organism. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move the body in tandem with the bones.
The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is made up of the heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries. The circulatory system transports nutrients and oxygen to the cells by circulating blood throughout the body. The lymphatic system, which includes lymph and lymph nodes, is also a part of the circulatory system; lymph transports fats, kills bacteria, and returns proteins and interstitial fluid from the bloodstream.
Humans and other vertebrates have closed circulatory systems, with blood vessels enclosing the blood. Insects, for example, have open circulatory systems in which blood is pumped into body cavities without the use of vessels.
Lung, trachea ,bronchioles and bronchi forms the respiratory system. The lungs exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the outside air and the blood. Other animals breathe through their gills or even their skin.
It consists of the gastrointestinal tract (which includes the esophagus, stomach, liver, and intestines) and digestive organs. The tongue, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are among them.
In this figure, the Digestive system structure is described.
The urinary system excretes wastes from the body through urine. Kidney, bladder, pair of urethra and ureters form the urinary system as a whole. The urinary system organs are sometimes grouped together with organs that remove wastes, such as the skin, lungs, and large intestine, and this is referred to as the excretory system.
The immune system is a defense system that protects an organism from disease. Leukocytes (white blood cells), bone marrow, and the thymus are all important components of the immune system. White blood cells come in a variety of forms, including helper T cells, killer T cells, and B cells. The lymphatic system is linked to the immune system.
The nervous system transmits and interprets signals from various parts of the body, as well as organising the body’s actions. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, whereas the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
The endocrine system is made up of all the glands in the body that produce hormones, which are then transported through the bloodstream to affect other organs. The pituitary gland, which produces reproductive and many other body-regulating hormones; the thyroid, which is involved in metabolism and protein synthesis; and the adrenal glands are all important glands which causes adrenaline to be produced and stimulates the fight-or-flight response.
The reproductive system of an organism includes the sex organs. Females’ sex organs include the vagina, uterus, and ovaries. The penis, testes, prostrate, and vas deferens are some sex organs in males. All of these organs are involved in sexual reproduction in some way.